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Sunday, 8 November 2020

Innovation in Higher Education During the Time of Crisis

 A Couple of years lower back I was once invited to attend an International Conference in Kolkata (formerly acknowledged as Calcutta), India hosted mutually by way of two very prestigious Indian Institutions on the theme "Innovative Business Practices in a VUCA world." I used to be excited and felt a deep experience of pleasure to be given this invitation to attend as a keynote speaker for two reasons: The theme of the convention was once very shut to my coronary heart as I continually felt that uncertainties are the father of innovation, appreciation dynamics of commercial enterprise uncertainties is the core to success. Secondly, the metropolis of Kolkata. A charming & bustling city. The City of Joy. Famous for its culture, character, foodies (puchka, rosogolla, mistis, biryanis etc.) and intellect. Nobel laureate Gunter Grass staunchly mentioned in 1975 "If Calcutta is dying, then each metropolis is dying." This is true. People in Calcutta are constantly alive with a range of issues and challenges they face each and every day, however they dislike criticism about their agony. I like the metropolis very tons and is one of my most favored cities in the world as it is the place I can get my foremost happiness and end up oblivious of the different matters of the universe, roaming round the dusty roads, bypassing small roadside tea stalls and listening to extra Bengali sounds, you experience strolling thru the grungy layers of time.



The contemporary world is overly complex, unpredictable, and adverse to all of us except we locate a special concord to stay in and adapt so to the situation. The contemporary outbreak COVID-19 delivered that actuality to all of us. This is one of the biggest crises of humanity and we are experiencing it first-hand. Individuals, communities, and country states are struggling to cope with this unknown, unpredictable, and invisible enemy that is inflicting serious human fatalities and miseries worldwide. While this is real that lights will come after these darkish times, and we all will overcome this crisis, it truely will exchange the behavioral patterns of the entirety for the foreseeable future. This disaster will allow humans to experience one of a kind with higher integration. Different in that experience that human beings will have excessive confidence, higher competencies sets, turn out to be extra succesful and extra perception on how to deal with a complicated situation; and higher integration in that feel that humans will be extra focused, their emotions, feelings, rationality, attitudes, empathy, cooperation will come to be greater built-in to obtain some thing for better. I am assured that post-COIVID-19 surroundings we will all be capable to reply one of the most indispensable questions "how this VUCA world is shaping our lives, societies, international locations and the world? And how Institutions have to reply to the challenges we are facing?


It is a scenario of a new 'normal' that we are dwelling in a VUCA world that is volatile, uncertain, complex, and of direction ambiguous. The remarkable adjustments we have viewed when you consider that the 2nd world conflict is incredibly significant, however the cutting-edge outbreaks of this generations of implausible and idiosyncratic. Today's commercial enterprise context is very turbulent and uncertain, from time to time very adversarial & complicated and it is necessary that enterprise wishes to evolve, learn, and innovate to survive. Organisations that do no longer include modifications are doomed. Change is paramount for brand new dynamic situation. We have viewed a range of models, tools, theories, and strategies to address a range of challenges we have been going through or to reply enterprise dynamics. In some cases, we are successful, however many instances we are not. Be there some thing else we can observe to recognize this dynamic nature of commercial enterprise and reply adequately? I strongly feel, one of the many choices to apprehend the social adjustments are the thought of evolution.


The evolutionary idea gives a customary framework for appreciation social change. 

However, in this article, I am now not going to talk about the achievable contribution of the evolutionary techniques to dynamic enterprise method and how strategic dynamism can be addressed, however as an alternative my dialogue will focal point on some principal challenges all Higher Education Institutions are going through in VUCA world unique in reference to COVID-19 and the responses we need. Institutions should adapt and exchange in accordance to the context and its new conditionality to continue to exist & prosper in a complicated world. I suggest that Institutions ought to now not alternate their last desires or imaginative and prescient instead they must be given new paths to gain them, establishments have to embody new scenario with terrific responses. Innovation is the last answer for overcoming any disaster or uncertainties.


Walking round brilliant cities round the world like London at any time, if you appear up, we will regularly spot signal of tremendous thinkers of the previous & humans who have contributed to the development of mankind. Two years back, whilst I used to be strolling via central London, I was once pleasantly amazed to see a Blue plaque marking the truth that Mahatma Gandhi had lived a few instances in London. Just suppose about this. Mahatma Gandhi, a exceptional parent of India and the world, residing in London forty two years earlier than the Indian Independence. What delivered him there? What did he analyze from it? Who did he meet? How he was once influenced later in his outlook, having then visited the most capitalist metropolis on planet earth!

It virtually should have legacy. 

Just as he left the legacy on the world. We can't overlook the previous that formed the nation, equally we should seem to be ahead with the key reference factor in the background. They are truly there in the outlook and in the totality in mankind knowledge. He added the simplicity, he dreamed with clarity, a visionary and in the end delivered the freedom for the millions. He taught us that to live, live on and prosper, revolutionary practices are imperative whether or not it is in politics, firms or in any elements of life. He talked about the adjustments skill innovation.


With this reference I felt that I must recall every other classical thinker who talked about innovation and simplicity. I am sure, you may additionally wager who this character is. A super thinker- Ernst Friedrich Schumacher a German statistician & Economist who is fantastically acknowledged for his e-book "Small is Beautiful: A find out about of economics as if human beings mattered" posted in 1973. This is one of the most influential books in the world. The e book targeted on the Western/capitalist financial shape in a modern way. He used to be in opposition to the advent of large corporations. He challenged the doctrine of economic, Technological, and scientific specialisation and proposed a device of intermediate technology, primarily based on smaller working units, possession ought to be communal with regional places of work that utilises neighborhood assets and labour forces. He realised the hazard of massive companies and the future hegemonic world order. The so-called globalisation is one of the strongest ideologies after the disintegration of Soviet Union began to emerge in all elements of our lives and civil society members, intellectuals, country actors, companies generic the notion as one of the most essential stimulus for nation's boom & development.


The key message of "Small is Beautiful" is applicable to my dialogue and that is smallness, simplicity, and innovation. When he talked about education, he realised Education is one of the most crucial of all resources. He blamed the academic device when a civilisation is in steady of crisis. He located a salient reality in Gandhi's remark that " Earth gives ample to fulfill each man's need, however now not for each man's greed." The thought of smallness delivered a progressive risk to the current world of financial order what he referred as "gigantism." What Schumacher desired used to be a people-centred economics. In the instructional device we desire a sustainable and modern student-centred system.


Gandhi delivered revolutionary practices in politics thru his non-violence movement-a effective device for social protest and modern social and political change. E. F Schumacher challenged the historic Western Capitalist doctrine with his modern doctrine small is lovely which turns into a daring idealism for the world. The equal mantra uttered by way of any other exquisite visionary Austrian Economist Schumpeter. He talked about the modifications and innovative destruction. Creativity comes via destruction. Creativity is quintessential to remain in the race. Creativity is crucial to overcome complicated situation, battle with unknown, unpredictability and a mega disaster like the disaster we are dealing with now.


All these above, three tremendous world thinkers have some thing frequent in them: Change. It is critical and alternate ability innovation.


Global challenges

If we query ourselves to discover the most essential challenges, we are dealing with in this modern world what we will see? We can discover out without problems quite a few challenges from a number of credible sources. Instead of searching at more than a few sources, my lookup corporation despatched out a questionnaire to over four hundred teachers and commercial enterprise leaders to discover the 5 most essential challenges. However, in our surprise, primarily based on response from 250 of them, Education is discovered as most essential venture for the world. It reminds me once more to recall Gandhi's Buniady Shksha (Fundamental Education)- Education is that which liberates. He noticed cautiously that proper training is critical now not the know-how of information to make democracy function.


Need VUCA chief for VUCA world

According to the Research performed through the Boston Consulting Group (2011), corporations that are adaptive and agile are extra possibly to thrive all through turbulent times. To lead and thrive in a VUCA context, leaders have to be greater adept than in the previous at complicated and adaptive questioning abilities, such as speedy studying and problem-solving, self-awareness, remedy with ambiguity, and strategic thinking. Indeed, even the most skilled greater training leaders might also be taxed in addressing the challenges of an ever-changing (VUCA) environment.


Bob Johansen (2014), distinctive fellow at the Institute for the Future and the writer of the e book "Leaders make the future" (2012) proposed an antidote, coined as "VUCA Prime". A VUCA chief need to have clear vision, an understanding, clarity, and agility Prof. Vijay Govindarajan-A Harvard Prof. described innovation as mountain climbing. In mountain hiking human beings are going through many challenges on getting to the pinnacle of the mountain. Once you are there you have accomplished it and that is moneymaking and exciting. However, the actual assignment starts offevolved as you are coming down from the pinnacle due to the fact of there are extra challenges and dangers. The new state of affairs is unknown for you and you are now not organized for it. We focal point on innovation too tons on one aspect and that is to carry an idea/creativity, however actual assignment ought to be on different facet which is how do you make it happen.


Both men and women and corporations have to center of attention on Innovative approaches. However, to deliver innovation we want to have an progressive mindset. We need to have clear aspirations and needs to deliver changes. It is necessary to apprehend that innovation is the commercialisation of creativity. Therefore, It is no longer an character approach, alternatively it is an organizational collective effort. Innovation inside the establishments can carry many fantastic effects for sustainability. While blessings are clear however it is no longer usually handy to carry new thoughts and progressive approaches of doing things as there are many blockages of enforcing innovation along with bad institutional aspiration, guide and funding, resistance to change, complicated regulatory framework at each local, countrywide and regional stage amongst others. Therefore, it is essential that establishments need to have a clear imaginative and prescient and are equipped to adapt agile applied sciences that allow innovation for the duration of the organisation. Technology can pressure the establishments to turn out to be extra customer-oriented imaginative and prescient of education. Such revolutionary practices can stimulate collaboration and partnerships with different institutions. This is the solely mantra for all of us in the course of disaster and beyond: Innovate, Innovate & Innovate, and alternate the methods to reap our last desires besides altering our destination.


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Friday, 6 November 2020

Quality Management System in Pharmaceuticals

 The pharmaceutical enterprise is one of the closely regulated manufacturing firms. Quality administration structures have a direct have an impact on the final exceptional of completed products. The fantastic of these products, however, does now not solely mirror legislative necessities however the essence and effectivity of the pharmaceutical practitioner.

Because of the importance connected to pharmaceutical industries, simply like the meals industries, they are without delay used via buyers either for neighborhood utility or inside consumption. The quality, safety, and efficacy attributes of this pharmaceutical merchandise must, for this reason, be assured so that the consumer's fitness is now not compromised. To make certain that excessive excellent and security is guaranteed, there is a want for gorgeous pharmaceutical industries.

Pharmaceutical industries are sure to comply with the world's lifestyles science first-rate requirements whilst attractive both in the production, supply, or consumption of pharmaceutical products. There are globally diagnosed our bodies that adjust the first-class of drug elements and drug products.

Having a precise grasp as nicely as imposing a terrific pleasant administration machine is a prerequisite for each and every sort of provider in this pharmaceutical zone to fulfill the regulatory as properly as the moral duty of incorporating administration of identity, safety, purity, quality, and efficacy of the completed medicinal products.

For most biotech and pharmaceutical companies, however, administration of training, enterprise processes, and files are nightmares to them. In this article, we are going to discover the great administration structures and how one has to discover them and control the operations successfully.

Application

The element of the high-quality manufacturing gadget in pharmaceutical merchandise can be utilized in the pharmaceutical Development for:

• Formulation improvement (container/closure system)

• Manufacture of investigational products.

• Drug substance development

• Development of analytical method

• Delivery gadget improvement (where needed)

• Manufacturing technique scale-up and development

Beneficiaries of Pharmaceutical Quality Systems

R&D Document Authors: In addition, environment-friendly pleasant administration structures without problems out creator files from compliant templates. The authors want now not to fear about transforming the archives to shape the templates. Word 2007 customers can create, revise, and even redline the files besides having to go away Word whilst the use of the new systems' toolbar. R&D Managers (Clinical, Regulatory, and Pre-Clinical): They can use the specific kinds of high-quality administration pharmaceutical software program structures like grasp control, search, organize, and take stock of unique find out about archives inside the secure, and centralized high-quality administration system. With the computerized routing and approval performance of excellent systems, managers can with ease oversee the mission groups comprised of sources from more than a few departments, as an awful lot as the groups may be working on more than a few tasks at the identical time. The superior pharmaceutical high-quality administration structures additionally decorate correspondence from distinct regulatory agencies, suppliers, and CROs, linked with the excellent documentation. With high quality best administration systems, the PDFs having content material bookmarks can be routinely generated for both file manipulate features or regulatory submissions. Since most of the pharmaceutical satisfactory administration software program is entire and linked systems, authors do not want to continuously cycle throughout the exclusive disparate structures (from phrase to electronic mail and then to record administration system, and so forth) so as to come across or revise a document, and then post it for overview or approval - satisfactory administration structures such as grasp manage lets in such moves to be undertaken inside the single built-in system.

Management: On section of lifestyles science organizations, pharmaceutical pleasant structures are recognized in imparting complete options push aside from the current in-house capabilities. Should it be that the enterprise is in want of coaching on the system's performance or wishes help on machine configuration to fit the particular needs, pharmaceutical excellent administration structures can be modeled with any provider stage required, or the guide the company needs. A corporation in want of professional expertise can have fantastic management's knowledgeable advisory crew to analyze the occasions so as to without a doubt map and strengthen these requirements.

Manufacturing/Operations: These structures effortlessly tracks all specifications, nonconformance, and deviations at some point of the improvement cycle. Pharmaceutical administration structures supply that all splendid personnel features education on the most up to date work guidelines and SOPs. Equally, these structures automate coaching duties and facilitate the ease of finding of education documents inside the centralized system.

Clinical Personnel: Within the scientific precincts, the pharmaceutical best administration structures rids the administration from the instances of paper submitting backlogs that end result in "black holes " of files which are nearly not possible to find. Now that the exceptional administration structures are digital and automated, looking out of archives for trial documentation (IRB information, or protocols) is simple. CVs, electronic report copies, e-mails, etc., from one-of-a-kind, learn about sites, can be without problems accessed in a single and centralized system.

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Thursday, 5 November 2020

What is non- funding institution for business facilitation in India

 The institutions such as the Reserve Bank of India which is the central bank of the country, the securities and exchange board of India which is defective securities exchange in the competition commission of India which is the rule setter for fair play in business provide the Supra contacts of business facilitation.



Then there are industry-specific business letters to such as the insurance regulatory and development authority, telecom regulatory authority of India, and the like. This institution does not invest in businesses and as such are called non-funding institutions.

In addition to a broad, general description of their roles and functions,

our emphasis here would be on their respective roles as business facilities. Here it would be pertinent to mention that there are several other non fund institutions that facilitated business right from 35 and formation to product and process testing training of manpower and a host of business extension services for a stock for example the National Institute of entrepreneurship and small business development focuses on training that trainers in entrepreneurship development samikaran entrepreneurship development institution is the national level effects organization of the entrepreneurship development first then there are 30 micro small and medium enterprises development institutes and 28 branch MSME-DIsset up in state capitals and other industrial cities all over the country for providing a host of services to the interviewer / small businesses. These institutes render consultancy services, prepare State industrial profiles, and conduct district-level industrial potential surveys. Besides comedies, institutes prepare project profiles and facilitate quality control and up-gradation in these enterprises.

These are several commodity boards and export promotion councils that assist businesses in their international for a full stop institutes like India Trade promotion organization and India brand equity foundation aim to enhance India's image as a sourcing part II and investment destination. We should not forget the facility's role of governments such as schemes as making in India, startup India for furthering, and facilitating Indian business.

RBI role in business facilitation:

1. Currency policy: the responsible for the monitor resolution of the economy and in the recent contacts of demonetization or remonetization too.attitude money supply is critical for the functioning of the economy. All the factor incomes in a modern economy are in fact money incomes first of business is revenue too is monitored.moreover the RBI also oversees the variability of foreign currency of facilitating overseas business transactions to stop it plays an important and indirect role in the determination of exchange rates that is the rates at which the domestic currency exchange with foreign currencies and vice versa.

2. Credit policy: Derby does not find a business or for the matter any activity most of our it policies have a major impact on the generalization of the banking resources for business generally as well as specifically for certain sectors. A small reduction in the state lottery liquidity ratio cash reserve ratio or bank rate can put huge funds at the disposal of the commercial banks for lending to the business and other sectors.

3. Development of financial system: financial state to be the lifeblood of business future of end a well-developed financial system is regarded as a sine qua non an excellent imperative for economic development. the financial system typically comprises financial institution's financial instruments and financial markets. RBI may be regarded as the heart of the financial system. It oversees a functioning and outreach of the commercial banks as well as non-banking finance companies to stop the funds that RBI via stipulatingSLR and CRR are generalized to development finance institutions comical development banks in India.


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What is about securities and exchange board of India

 Know about securities and exchange board of India



1.Introduction:

the securities and exchange board of India (SEBI) was established by the government of India on 12th April 1988 and given Statutory powers in 1992 with SEBI act 1992 being passed in the parliament of the SEBI act 1992 has come into force with effect from 30 January 1992.

SEBI is an authority to regulate and develop the Indian capital market and protect the interest of investors in the capital market. The controller of the capital issue has been played by the SEBI and authority under the capital issue control act 1947.
SEBI has its headquarters at the business district of Bandra Kurla Complex in Mumbai coma and has north and east and a southern and western regional office in New Delhi Kolkata Chennai and Ahmedabad, respectively controller of capital issues was the regulatory authority before SEBI come into existence; it delivered 30 from the capital issues act 1947. In April 1988 Korma recipe was constituted as a regulator of capital markets in India under a resolution of the Government of India.

2. SEBI role in business facilitation:

CBI responsible for the development of India's capital market that is market for the corporate issue of capital first of example, it facilitates the public offering of capital by the company to stop these companies are able to access the capital market of their funding requirements. It also oversees the subsequent trading of their shares on the floor of the stock exchanges. It even facilities overseas and Titus these years of participating in Indian capital markets and the domestic capital market and 30 years of participation in the overseas market. It coordinates with the market developers and regulators. It is responsible for investment faith in the functioning of the capital markets and excuses the corporates of the steady flow of funds.

3. Competition Commission of India CCI:

a) introduction-competition is a contest between organisms, animals individuals and groups, etc. In the context of business, competition is the best means of ensuring that the common man has access to the broadest range of goods and services at the most competitive prices. With increased competition, producers will have maximum incentive to innovate and specialized. This would result in reduced costs and wider choice for consumers. If their competition in the market is essential to achieve this objective to stop competition commission was set up to create and sustain fair competition in the economy that will provide a level playing field to the producers and make the market work for the welfare of the consumers.
b) the competition act,2002-basically comic competition law is a tool to implement and enforce competition policy and to prevent and furnish anticompetitive business practices by farmers and unnecessary government interfaces in the market. The competition act 2002 as amended by the competition act 2007 follows the philosophy of modern competition laws. The Act prohibits anti-competitive agreements and abuse of dominant position by enterprises and labels its combination acquisition of acquiring of controls and M and A which causes or likely to cause an appreciable adverse effect on competition within India.
c) the competition commission of India CCI-the competition commission of India CCI established by the central government on 14th October 2003. The commission is a body corporate having perpetual succession and common seal full stops CCI consists of a chairperson in six members appointed by the central government post of it is a duty of the commission to eliminate practices having an adverse effect on competition promote and sustain competition, protect the interests of consumers and ensure freedom of trade in the markets of India. The commission is also required to give an opinion on competition issues on a difference received from a statutory authority established under any law and to undertake competition advocacy to create public awareness and impart training on competition issues.
d) Role of CCI: the premier able to the competition act states and act to provide keeping in view of the economic development of the country, for the establishment of a commission to prevent practices having an adverse effect on competition to promote and sustain competition in markets to protect the interests of the consumer and to ensure freedom of trade carried on by other participants in the market, in India and for matters connected therewith or accidental thereto.
e) Role of CCI as a business facilitator-fair competition is a key to a thriving business sector post of CCI protect businesses from other businesses and fair practices and analyzing the living entities too.it promotes competition by preventing abuse of dominance by a market player to the determinant of other competitors and the consumers. As such it enjoys the co-existence of large and small enterprises.
4. Insurance regulatory and development authority of India: insurance regulatory and development authority of India is an autonomous Apex Titli body that regulates and develops the insurance industry in India first of it was constituted under the insurance regulatory and development authority act 1999 and duly passed by the parliament.

The IRDA Act, 1999allows private players to enter the insurance sector in India besides a maximum for equity of 26% in a private insurance company having operations in India. The insurance bill proposed by the UPA government in July 2013 but passed in July 2014 raised the FDI limits in the insurance sector to 49%.it serves as an authority to protect the interests of holders of insurance policy, to regulate, promote, and ensure orderly growth of the insurance industry, and for matters connected therewith. IRDA rules are the protection rights of policyholders and they provide registration certificate to life insurance companies and responsible for renewable commodification comic and solution and suspension of the registered certificate.
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Discuss about funding institutions for Indian development banks

 Development banks are those financial institutions that provide funds and financial assistance to new and upcoming business enterprises. Development banks are distinguishable from commercial banks. Unlike commercial banks, they do not accept deposits. They drove their resources from the government and other promoting agencies. As such they are referred to as "purveyors" of credit. while discussing the role of RBI as a business Felicita we mentioned that the instrument of SLR and CRR is the means through which the funds are from the banking sector and those funds are placed with the development banks.



In India, the genesis of development banking may be traced to the setting up of the industrial finance corporation of India in 1948. the setting of the industrial credit and investment corporation of India took place in 1955 and the industries development bank of India in 1964. The letter to development banks has since converted into commercial banks. The IFCI is the loan surviving industrial development bank in India at present. the small industries development bank of India spun off from the IDBI in 1994. The National Bank for agricultural and rural development was set up in 1982.

National bank for agriculture and rural development


Is an Apex development Bank in India headquarters at Mumbai with branches all over India? The bank has been entrusted with matters concerning policy planning and operations in the field of credit for agriculture and other economic activities in rural areas in India for stop NABARD is active in developing financial inclusion policy and is a member of the alliance for financial inclusion.
NABARD has been instrumental in grounding rural social innovations and social enterprises in the rural hinterlands. It has in the process partnered with about 4,000 organizations in grounding many of the interventions.

The organisation had developed a huge amount of trust capital in its three decades of work with rural communities.

1.NABARD is the most important institution in the country which looks after the development of the cottage industry commerce small industry and village industry and other rural industries.
2.NABARD also reaches out to Dalit economics and supports and promotes integrated developments.

3. NABARD discharge its duty by undertaking the following roles:

a) search as an Apex financing agency for the institutions providing investment and production credit for promoting the various development activities in rural areas.
b)text measures towards institution building for improving the observative capacity of the credit delivery system including monitoring formulation of rehabilitation schemes destructuring of credit institutions, training of personnel, etc.
c)coordinates the rural financing activities of all institutions engage in developmental work at the field level and maintains seriously ISON with Government of India state governments reserve Bank of India and other national-level institutions concerned with policy formulation.
d) undertakes monitoring and evaluation of projects that were financed by it.
e)it regulate the cooperative banks and RRB and manage talent acquisition through IBPS CWE.
Nawabs refinance is available to State cooperative agriculture and rural development banks state cooperative banks regional rural banks commercial banks and other financial institutions approved by RBI. While the ultimate beneficiaries of investment credit can be individuals partnership concerns companies commerce state-owned corporation of cooperative societies production credit is generally given to individuals. Nabard has its head office at Mumbai India.
NABARD is also known for its big Bank linkage programming which encourages India's banks to lend to self-help groups. Largely because shg is composed mainly of poor women, this has evolved into an important Indian tool for microfinance.
NABARD also has a portfolio of natural resources management programs involving diverse fields like watershed development, tribal development, and innovation through dedicated farm set up for the purpose.
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What is other business terminology?

 Acquisition: when one in an organization takes over the other organization and controls all its business operations, it is known as acquisitions. In this process of acquisition one financially strong organization overpowers the weaker one.



Bottom line: in plain English bottom line means the most important fact of an aspect of anything. In BCK, it may be defined as the farm's income after all expenses have been deducted from revenues. these expenses include interest charges paid on loans common general and administrative costs and income tax is a full stop in simple words it is the same things as NET profits for this method than most of the owners of the farm. In today's context if forms performance is evaluated not on the basis of such and economic performance as not prophets alone but also on the basis of a contribution to the commodities and the conservation of the environment.
Business environment: it is a set of all the variables external to the farms but influences its decision making and in turn, is also influenced by it.
Business facilitator: diesel individuals, organizations-institutions, and all other arrangements that are the setting up of operating an existing from the business.
Cooperative forms of business organization: these are the forms of business organizations wherein the eyes of the business entity is distinct from its owners. It can own the assets and Owe to others as an artificial legal person. Thus, the liability of business owners can be limited to be a predetermined amount. The company is the idle representation of the corporate forms of business organization. Cooperative governance: it is a system of overseeing the affairs of a corporation to ensure that they are conducted in an ethical manner and s provisions of law full soft the mechanism of corporate governance includes a. The board of directors who appoint, oversee, and reward the management team;b. Independent audit of the accounts of the company; c.reporting of the performance to the market stock exchanges and business media. All these are examples of the system of corporate governance.
Electronic commerce: it boldly refers to the internet and mobile telephone e based applications for conducting business and commerce. The letter more precisely e is known as mobile commerce. It includes not only sach pure e-commerce business as Amazon but also includes such business functions as marketing internal marketing etc. Usually it typical E-Commerce retailing with have an order placement tracking and delivery and as well as online payment end.
Electronic filling: electronic filing system of filling information required by regulators Government and others electronically. In taxation, it is a method of filing tax returns and tax forms on the internet. Globalization: it is a systematic process of removing the barriers to international trade in goods and services and international flows of capital first of some people argue that is it should include various free movement of labor as well as of collectively all this result in the greater integration of a country's economy with the economy of rest of the world.
Goodwill: Goodwill is accounting is the difference between the watered company page when it buys assets of another company and the book value of those assets. Sometimes, real Goodwill is a company's good reputation for the loyalty of its customers, and so on.
Infrastructure: it means the basic facility example buildings roads power supplies needed for the operation of a society or enterprise. For example, the farm infrastructure would comprise is factories from office warehouses, etc.
Joint products and by-products: joint products represent two or more product separated in the course of the same processing operation, usually requiring further processing each product being in such a proportion that no single product can be designed as a major product. For example in the oil industry gasoline, fuel oil lubricants, paraffin, kerosene are all produced from crude petroleum.by products are defined as products be covered from material discarded in the main process or the form of production of some major products where the material value is to be considered at the time of severance for the main product. Thus, by-products in emerging as a result of the processing operation of another product or they are produced from the scope or waste of materials of a process for example molasses in the sugar industry.
Liberalization: it refers to a systematic process of easing government control over private business activity. It is often interesting with the license and permit era where the business head to obtain Government licenses and permissions to start or grow a business. Liberalization is one of the three pillars of the new economic policy of the Government of India since the 1990s. Dadar tu pillars are privatization and globalization full software that is why the NTP is also known as LPG or GPL where G L and P respectively imply globalization, Liberalisation, and privatization.

Mission: a company's mission statement is typically focused on its present business scope and who we and what we do; mission statements bodily describe and organizations present capabilities, customer focus activities, and business makeup.
Proprietary forms of business organizations: these are the forms of business organization where the law does not distinguish between the business as a separate entity distinct from its owners. Consequently, the liabilities of the business are considered as the personal liabilities of the owners. Sole proprietorship and partnership may be seated as the best representative examples of the proprietary form of business organization. Returns and risks: these are the two sides of the business outcomes particularly for its owners and generally for all investors. Individuals and businesses invest their resources in expectation of the returns of rewards, they may be simply called profits. However, these expectations may not always realize to all or fully. The non / Patil delegation of expectation is called raised. Insert investment such risks are known existent or so low as to label this as a risk-free investment. For example, if a person deposits her / his savings in his savings bank account of a recurring deposit account or fixed deposit account of a bank that returns are almost as Yudh. But most of their investments more so investment in business and tile risk full stop those who undertake the risk expect commensurate returns as well. Thus, the cliche higher the risk and higher the returns.
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Discuss about banking terminology

 Acceptance: acceptance which is also known as the bankers acceptance is a signed instrument of acknowledgement that indicates to the approval and acceptance of all terms and condition of any agreement on behalf of the banquet. It is a very wide term that is used in contacts with financial agreement and contract.

Accepting house: accepting houses banking aur finance or organising that specialise in the service of acceptance and guarantee of bills of exchange first of this organisation specialise in two prominent functions coma this is felicitating the different log table instrument and merchant banking. Account balance:the total amount of money is a particular bank account along with the death of credit amount then that amount is also returned as the account balance.
Accrued interest:accrued interest is the interest, accumulated on an investment but is not get paid to stop of an accurate interest is also termed as interest receivable first option banking books refer to call it as the interest that is earned more but not yet paid.
Administered rates:Administered rates are the rates of interest which can be changed contractually by lender. In some cases these rates can also be changed by the depositor and also the baby. The laws and provisions as monitor the concept of administered rates differ in each jurisdiction. American despository receipt: American depositary receipt, also known as a r despacito received which are equal to a specific number of shares of business that have been issued in foreign country first of American states are treated only in the United State of America. Similar mechanism exist for other countries also.
Annuities:annuities are contracts that guarantee income or written in exchange of a huge sum of money that is deposited either at the same time for Speed with the help of periodic payments cost of some of the common types of duties include the default fixed immediate or variable variant. Automatic clearing house:automatic clearing house is nation-wide electronic cleaning clearing houses that monitors and administers the process of check and fund clearance between banks use of it is an electronic system and has minimises the human thus in a processor clearance. It distributes credit and debit balances automatically.
Automatic teller machine:automatic teller Machine service Akeli used to conduct transactions with the bank or electronically. The automated teller machine is an excellent example of integration of computers and electronics into the field of banking.
Balance transfer:balance transfer is a repayment of a credit debt with the help of another sources of credit in some cases, balance transfer also refers to transfer of funds from one account to another.Bank account:imran ke count is an account help by person with the bank with the help of which the account holder can deposit safeguard is money earn interest and also make mixture payments.

Bank rate:it is the interest rate of Central Bank in the discharge of its function as bankers Bank lands to the commercial banks constructions is this lending may be in the form of discounting of the securities pledged, it is also called the discount rate.
Bridge financing:also known as a financing commerce which currency is unknown at the time and cash flow between a short term loan and long term loan is filled up.English financing begins at the end of the time period of the first loan and ends with the start of the time period of a second are there by bridge the gap between two loans it is also known as gap financing.
Bounce cheque:amount check is nothing but an ordinary venture that any bank and refers to encashon page because of the fact that there are no sufficient finances in the bank account of the originator on draw of the chair for same are the valid reason.

Cap:a cap is a limited regulatory increase or decrease in the rate of interest and installment of an adjustable rate mortgage.

Cash reserve:the cash reserve is the total amount of cash that is present in the bank account and can also be withdrawn immediately.

Certificate of deposit:the certificate of deposit is a certificate of savings deposit that from the depositor the some back a loan with appropriate interest.

Clearing house:the clearing house is a place where the representatives of the different banks need for confirming and clearing all the checks and balances with each other first of the clearinghouse, in most countries across the world, is managed by the central bank.

Letter of credit:a document issued by bank on behalf of the buyer or time Potter starting its commitment to pay a third party seller on the porter a specific amount for the purchase of goods by its customers who is by. The seller has to meet the condition given in the document submit and the delivery documents,in order to receive the payments. Letter of credit are mainly used in the international trade transactions of use amounts kamaveri in the customers and the supplier leave in different countries.

Market value:market value is a value at which the demand of consumers and the supply of the manufactures decide the price of a commodity or service cost of the market value is the equilibrium point on the supply and demand graph of demand and supply curves meet. Market value is decide on the basis of of the number of people who demand a commodity and the number of commodities that the seller's capable of selling.
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Discuss about market terminology

 Advertising Campaigns: and organizations program of advertising activities over a particular period with specific aims, for example, an increase in sales of awareness of a product.



Advertising: Advertising is any paid form of non-personal presentation and promotion of ideas coma goods and services through mass media such as newspapers and magazines television and radio by an identified sponsor.

After-sales service: the services received after the original goods or services have been paid for. open the services is provided as part of a warranty or guarantee scheme associated with the product and service purchased.

Agent: the agent is a part of the distribution channel. And the agent is effectively a wholesaler who represents buyers and sellers on a relatively permanent basis, performs only a few functions, and does not take title to goods.

A barrier to trade: sometimes that makes trade between two countries more difficult or expensive for example a tax on imports.

Barriers to entry/exit: economic or other characteristics of a marketplace that make it difficult for new firms to enter or exit. examples include economics of scale; product differentiation; capital requirement samikaran coast disadvantages other than size samikaran access to distribution channel samikaran government policies and etc.

Benchmarking: benchmarking is a process of comparing the products and services of the business against those of competitors in a market, for landing businesses in other markets in order to find ways of improving quality and performance. An analysis of competitor strengths and weaknesses; used to evaluate a form of relative to competitive position, opportunities on improving, and success/ value in achieving such improvements.

Brand equity: brand equity refers to the value of a brand full stop brand equity is based on the extent to which the brand has high brand loyalty korma name awareness, received quality, and strong product associations. Brand equity also includes other intangible assets such as patents trademarks and channel relationships.

Brand loyalty: it is a strongly motivated and long-standing decision of the customer to purchase a particular product or service.

Business model: a company's business model is management's storyline for how the strategy will be a moneymaker.

Grand: a brand is a specific type of product formed. A brand-represents by a brand name symbol design Kamal logon Ko main packaging-is the Identity of a particular product formed that customers recognize as being different from others.

Business portfolio: the business portfolio is the collection of a business and product that make up the business.

Business to business: market activity directed from one business to another. This term is often shortened to B2B.

Buying behavior: buying behavior concerns the process that buyers go through when deciding whether or not to purchase goods or services. Buying behavior can be influenced by a variety of external factors and motivations including marketing activity.

Conglomerate diversification: a strategy of growing a farm by acquiring through farms for investment purposes samikaran usually little or no anticipated Synergy with the acquired firm.

Consumer markets: consumer markets are the markets for production services brought by individuals for their own or family use.

Corporate culture: corporate culture refers to a company's values beliefs business principles, traditions way of operating, and internal work environment.

Cross-selling: using a customer buying history to select them for related offers. For example, selling a car alarm and music system to new car buyers.

Customer demand: customer demand is the want for a specific product supported by an ability and willingness to pay for it.

Customer loyalty: feeling attitude that incline a customer either to return to a company shop outlet to purchase there again or else to repurchase a particular product or service or brand.

Customer need: a need is a basic requirement that an individual wishes to satisfy.

Customer satisfaction: the provision of goods and services which fulfill the customer expectations in term of quality and services in relation to the price paid.

Customers want: I want is a desire for a specific product or service to satisfy the underlying need.

Direct marketing: when business and nonprofit organizations market their products or services or causes directly to consumers based on consumer interest examples include catalogs and other postal mailings marketing, text messages, email ads on a mobile device, and internet advertising.

Distribution channel: the network of organizations necessary to distribute goods or services for the manufacturers to the consumers the distribution channel therefore potentially consists of manufacturers distributors wholesalers retailers and E-tailers.

Fast-moving consumer goods: fast-moving consumer goods are those that sell in high volumes with low unit value and have fast consumer repurchase. Examples include soaps and toothpaste hair oils, gems pet juices, readymades, baked beans, etc.

Forecasting: the process of estimating future demands by anticipating what wires are likely to do under a given set of marketing conditions. For example economic confidence disposable income, pricing levels, etc.

Innovators: innovators are those who adopt a new product first. They are usually relatively young live leak intelligent socially and geographical mobile. They are often of a high social-economic group.

Internal marketing: the process of eliciting support of a company and its activities among its own employees, in order to encourage them to promote its goals. This process can happen at a number of levels from increasing awareness of individual products on marketing campaigns to explaining corporate business strategy.

Joint venture: third party commercial corporation established by two or more farms to pursue a particular market common resource supply co mail-order business opportunity to stop it is created or operated for the benefit of the co-owners.

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What Is Business Stock And Commodity Market Technology

The domains of business and commercial knowledge are ever-expanding and evolving and BCK droughts its vocabulary from various disciplines.



Technical facet: 

technically a business may be viewed as a transformation process-a huge machine-where inputs are subjected to the entire process for generating output. Now, this interpretation of business can open us to a host of terms in the BCK lexicon. a business's inputs are the various commodities including industrial RAW material-minerals and metals as well as agricultural commodities, especially for agro-industries. It is therefore desirable to know about terminologies returning to commodity markets.

Commercial facet: 

commercially business is all about marketing management commerce this is planning to organize directing and controlling form of relationships with its consumer/ markets. essentially it comprises the framed PS of marketing-product price place promotion for goods marketing and additional PS of people connect with the customer's physical evidence example hygienic in hospital or restaurant and processes example customer service time queue management etc. For services marketing. hair back would also involve the awareness of terminologies pretending to consumer markets and domestic as well as international.

Financial facet: 

from an economic accounting and financial perspective, business implies investment and the associated returns and risks that this set includes sources of business finance and the state of the development of financial markets; maintenance of accounts preparation of profit and loss account and the balance sheet for stop it involves estimation of coarse revenue and profits and the periodic reporting the firm's performance.

HR facet: 

From an HR perspective a business organization is all about people occupying different job positions and performing their respective roles and responsibilities and functions.people are said to be an organization's most precious asset Elbit these assets do not figure in its balance sheet. Their competencies chapters individual motivation and collective morals are believed to have an effect on the organization's performance. Thus, all the organization processes and associated vocabulary of attracting and retaining talented energetic enthusiastic, and ethical human resources are also an integral part of the KCB lexicon.

Administrative facet:

 administrative Shibli back pretends to the forms of business organization common regulation approvals and clearances needed to start and carry on business. It also refers to the internal management and governance processes.

An important caveat about the foregoing discussion of the various perspectives contextualizing the BCK terminologies is necessary. We have started the facets separately just for the sake of simplicity and clarity. In practice, there will be a lot of overlap. Please read the MPC in the Little business I find many facets of the same reality. the fishes are on the same reality ko. For example, take the technical and commercial facets. whether in-bound or out-bound order processing inventory management deliveries payments and the associated terminologies would be common. Whether one is purchasing the raw material or selling the goods the signs and symbols stated above would be the same.

secondly, we have already stated the fact of BCK lexicon like that BCK itself is vast and ever-evolving and expanding.

finally, we have clubbed finance stock in commodity market terminology for overcoming the overlaps and utilized the other business terminology for including those terms my patan to each other administrative-technical and other perspectives not covered in the previous classification.


Finance, stock, and commodity market terminology:

Agent: a brokerage firm is said to be an agent when it acts on behalf of the client in buying or purchasing shares. At no point in time in the entire transaction, the agent will on the shares.

Amortize: to amortize is to charge a regular portion of an expenditure over a fixed period of time post of for example if sometimes cost rupees 100000 and is to be amortized over 10 years the financial reports will show an expense of 10,000 per year for 10 years.

An annuity is due: A series of payments of an equal amount at fixed intervals for a specified number of periods.

Annuity: a series of payments of an equal amount at fixed intervals for the specified numbers of periods.

Appreciation: Appreciation is an increase in value. If a machine cost rupee 500000 last year and is now worth rupee 700000 it is appreciated in value by rupee 200000.

Arbitrage: arbitrage is the simultaneous purchase and sale of two identical commodities and instruments. This simultaneous sale and purchase are done in order to take advantage of the price variations in two different markets. Example purchase of gold in one nation and the simultaneous sale in another.

Asset: asset means an economic resource that is expected to be of benefit in the future.

probable future economic benefits of 10 as a result of past transactions or events. Anything of value to which the firm has a legal claim for any owned tangible or intangible object having economic value usable to the owner. In other words, an acid may be physical properties such as a building or an object such as a stock certificate or it may be right such as the right to be e use pretended process. This can be:


1. Current assets: current assets are those assets that can be expected to turn into cash within a year or less. For example, cash marketable securities account receivable and inventory.

2. Fixed assets: fixed assets cannot be quickly turned into cash without interfering with business operations. These are valuable items that last more than one-year food for example land and buildings on machinery, vehicle equipment for furniture, and long-term investments.

3. Intangible assets: intangible assets are items such as patents copyrights, Trademark and other kinds of rights are things of value to a company that is not physical objects. Often, they do not appear in financial reports.

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Wednesday, 4 November 2020

UPSC ONLINE RECRUITMENT 2020

 Information:- One vacancy for the post of Extension Officer, Directorate of Extension, Department of Agriculture, Cooperation and Farmers Welfare, Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare (SC-01). The post is suitable for Physically A challenged person with disability of Low Vision(LV) or Hard of Hearing(HH) or Locomotor disability i.e. One Leg Affected (R or L)(OL) or One Arm Affected (R or L)(OA) or One Leg and One Arm Affected (OLA) or Cerebral palsy (CP) or Leprosy Cured (LC) or Dwarfism (DW) or Acid Attack Victims(AAV) or Muscular Dystrophy(MD).



 The post is permanent. Pay Scale: Level-10 in the Pay Matrix as per 7th CPC. General Central Service, Group ‘A’ Gazetted, Non-Ministerial.Age: 40* years. 

ESSENTIAL QUALIFICATIONS: 

(A) EDUCATIONAL: Master Degree in Agriculture or Agriculture Extension from a recognized University or Institute or Master of Business Administration with a Bachelor’s Degree in Agriculture from a recognized university or institute or Master’s Degree in Rural Management from a recognized university or institute or Master’s Degree in Agriculture Business Management or Vegetable Science or Horticulture or Agro-Forestry or Degree in Agriculture Engineering from a recognized university or institute. 

(B) EXPERIENCE: One year of experience in Agriculture Extension Work in the Central or State Government or Union Territories or Autonomous Body or Public Sector Undertaking. DESIRABLE: Two years’ experience in the formulation and conduct of the Extension Training Programme. NOTE: I: Qualifications are relaxable at the discretion of the Union Public Service Commission for reasons to be recorded in writing in case of candidates otherwise well qualified. NOTE: II: The qualifications regarding experience are relaxable at the discretion of the Union Public Service Commission in the case of candidates belonging to Scheduled castes. If at any stage of selection the Union Public Service Commission is of the opinion that a sufficient number of candidates from this community possessing the requisite experience are not likely to be available to fill up the post reserved for them. 

DUTIES:

 i) Branch Officer of Technical Section.

 ii) Assistant in the In-service training program. 

iii)Arrange visits of farmers from States.

 iv)Maintain the progress of the training program of farmers. 

v) Coordination of Annual Plan. HQ: New Delhi but liable to serve any part of India or abroad

CLOSING DATE FOR SUBMISSION OF ONLINE RECRUITMENT APPLICATION (ORA) THROUGH ORA WEBSITE IS 23:59 HRS ON 12.11.2020.

THE LAST DATE FOR PRINTING OF COMPLETELY SUBMITTED ONLINE APPLICATION IS UPTO 23:59 HRS ON 13.11.2020.

The age limit is shown against an item 

No. 1 is reserved for Scheduled Castes candidates is the relaxed age limit for Scheduled Castes Candidates. The age limit shown against all items is the normal age limit and the age is relaxable for SC/ST candidates up to 5 years and up to 3 years for OBC candidates in respect of vacancies reserved for them. SC/ST/OBC candidates have to produce a caste certificate in prescribed proforma. For age concession applicable to other categories of applicants please see relevant paras of the "Instructions and Additional Information to Candidates for Recruitment by Selection" 

APPLICATION FEE:

 (a) Candidates are required to pay a fee of Rs. 25/- (Rupees Twenty five) only either by remitting the money in any branch of the SBI by cash or by using net banking the facility of the SBI or by using visa/master credit/debit card. 

(b) No fee for SC/ST/PH/Women candidates of any community. No "fee exemption" is available to Gen/OBC/EWS male candidates and they are required to pay the full prescribed fee. 

(c) Applications without the prescribed fee would not be considered and summarily rejected. No representation against such rejection would be entertained. 

(d) Fee once paid shall not be refunded under any circumstance nor can the fee be held in reserve for any other examination or selection.

Age relaxation for Central Government employees:

 The upper age limit is relaxable for Central/U.T. Government. Servants up to 5 years as per instructions issued by the Government. of India from time to time. (This implies that Scheduled Castes/Schedules Tribes category candidates would get maximum 10 years age relaxation including 5 years age relaxation meant for their respective categories. Similarly OBC candidates would get maximum upto 8 years including 3 years age relaxation meant for OBC category). This relaxation will be admissible to Government servants with 3 years continuous service in Central Government and working in posts which are in the same line or allied cadre and where a relation could be established that the service already rendered in that particular post will be useful for the efficient discharge of the duties of the post to which recruitment is being made. Decision in this regard will rest with the Commission. A candidate claiming to belong to the category of Central Government servant and thus seeking age relaxation under this para would be required to produce a Certificate in the prescribed proforma issued after the date of advertisement from his/her Employer on the Office letter head to the effect that he/she is a regularly appointed Central Government Servant and not on casual/adhoc/daily wages/hourly paid/contract basis employee.

HOW TO APPLY:

 i) Candidates must apply online through the website http://www.upsconline.nic.in. Applications received through any other mode would not be accepted and summarily rejected. 

ii) Candidates must upload the documents/certificates in support of all the claims made by them in the application like, Date of Birth, Experience (preferably in prescribed format), Desirable Qualification(s) etc. or any other information, separately against each claim in pdf file in such a way that the file size does not exceed 1 MB for the respective aforesaid modules and 2 MB for the “UPLOAD OTHER DOCUMENT” module and is legible when a printout taken. For that purpose, the applicant may scan the documents/certificates in 200 dpi grey scale. Documents like Pay Slip, Resume, Appointment Letter, Relieving Letter, Un-signed Experience Certificate etc. must not be uploaded in the Document Upload Module:- 

a) Matriculation/10th Standard or equivalent certificate indicating date of birth, or mark sheet of Matriculation/10th Standard or equivalent issued by Central/State Board indicating Date of Birth in support of claim of age. Where date of birth is not available in certificate/mark sheets, issued by concerned Educational Boards, School leaving certificate indicating Date of Birth (in case of Tamil Nadu& Kerala).

 b) Degree/Diploma certificate as proof of educational qualification claimed. In the absence of Degree/Diploma certificate, provisional certificate along with mark sheets pertaining to all the academic years. 

c) Order/ letter in respect of equivalent Educational Qualifications claimed, indicating the Authority (with number and date) under which it has been so treated, in respect of equivalent clause in Essential Qualifications, if a candidate is claiming a particular qualification as equivalent qualification as per the requirement of advertisement. 

d) Certificate(s) in the prescribed proforma from the Head(s) of Organization(s)/Department(s) for the entire experience claimed, clearly mentioning the duration of employment (date, month & year) indicating the basic pay and consolidated pay. The certificate(s) should also mention the nature of duties performed/experience obtained in the post(s) with duration(s). Experience Certificate should be issued in prescribed format relevant to the post. Experience certificate not in prescribed proforma but containing all the details as mentioned above would be considered on merits by the Commission. 

e) Caste certificate by candidate seeking reservation as SC/ ST/ OBC, in the prescribed proforma from the competent authority indicating clearly the candidate’s Caste, the Act/ Order under which the Caste is recognized as SC/ ST/ OBC and the village/ town the candidate is ordinarily a resident of. 

 f) A declaration in the prescribed format by candidate seeking reservation as OBC, that he/she does not belong to the creamy layer on the crucial date, in addition to the community certificate (OBC). Unless specified otherwise, the prescribed closing date for receipt of Online Recruitment Application for the post is to be treated as crucial date. 

g) Physically Handicapped certificate in prescribed proforma issued by the competent authority by Physically Handicapped persons eligible for appointment to the post on the basis of prescribed standards of Medical Fitness. The Competent Authority to issue Physically Handicapped certificate shall be a Medical Board duly constituted by the Central or a State Government. The Central/ State Government may constitute Medical Board(s) consisting of at least three members out of which at least one shall be a specialist in the particular field for assessing Locomotor/ Cerebral / Visual / Hearing disability, as the case may be. 

h) Documentary support for any other claim(s) made. 


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Tuesday, 3 November 2020

What is elements of macro environment

 The macro-environment is a part of the external environment that is largely external to the enterprise thus, beyond the direct influence and control of the organization but which experts powerful influence over its functioning. The external environment of the enterprises consists of individuals groups agencies and organizations events common conditions and forces with which the organization comes into frequent contact in the course of its functioning. It stabilizes interacting and interdependent relations conduct transactions designs and administers appropriate strategies and policies to cope with fluctuations therein and otherwise its way into the future.

Demographic environment:

the term demographics denote statistics of population in an area district, country, or in the world. It includes factors such as race age income educational attainment asset ownership of homeownership, employment status and location.data with respect to these factors within a demographic variable and across households are of interest to a businessman in addition to economists.marketers and other social scientists of ten group population into categories based on demographic variables.

Some of the demographic factors have great impact on the business fullstop factors such as general age profile sex ratio, education growth rate affect the business with different magnitude. India has relatively younger population as compared to some other countries. China on the other hand is having and aging population.many multinational are interested in India considering its population size. With having approximately 16% of the world's population common the country hold huge potential for overseas companies.

Economic environment:

economic environment refers to the nature and direction of the company in which a company completes or make complete. It includes general economic situation in the region and the nation conditions in resource markets man money material machine method which influence the supply of points to the enterprise their costs quality availability and reliability of supplies. economic environment determines the strength and size of the market. The purchasing power in an economy depends on current income comprises savings circulation of money full depth and credit availability. Income distribution pattern determines the marketing possibilities. The important point to consider is to find out the effect of economic prospect and inflation on the operation of the firms.

Political and legal environment:this is partly general to all similar enterprises and partly specific to an individual enterprise. It includes such factors as the general state of political development the degree of politicizationof business and economic issues, the level of political morality, the law and order situation, political stability and the political ideology and practices of the ruling party, the proposed fullness and efficiency of governmental agencies, the extent and nature of the governmental intervention in the economic and the industry government policies specific legal enactments and framework in which enterprises has the function and the degree of effectiveness with which they are implemented at, public attitude towards business in general and enterprise in particular and so on.

There are three important elements in political and legal environment.

1. Government:

business is highly guided and control by government policies. Hence the type of government running a country is a powerful influence on business:a business has to consider the changes in the regulatory framework and their impact on the business.taxes and duties are other critical area that may be divide and effect the business. For example the Indian government is promoting manufacturing sector through campaigns like make in India.

2. Legal:

businesses FIFA to operate in a country where there is a sound legal system. Harbour in any country businesses must have a good working knowledge of the major laws protecting consumers, competitions and organizations. Businesses must understand the relevant laws relating to companies, competition, intellectual property, foreign exchange, labor, and so on. For example, new GST law will influence most of the businesses.

3. Political:

political pressure groups influence and limit organisations. Apart from sporadic movements against certain products, service and organisations politics has deeply speeded into unions. Also special interest groups and political action committee put pressure on the business organisations to pay more attention to consumers rights of minority rights and so on.

Social cultural environment:it is to a general factor which influences almost all enterprises in a similar manner. It represents a complex of factors such as social traditions, values and beliefs level and standards of literacy and education the ethical standards and the state of society, the extent of social infurcation conflict and Cohesiveness and so forth. Socio cultural environment consists of factors related to human relationships and the impact of social attitudes and culture values which has bearing on the operations of the organisations for soft the beliefs values and norms of a society determine how individuals and organisations should be interrelated. The core beliefs of a particular society tend to be persistent. It is difficult for a business to change these core values, which becomes a determine of its functioning.

Technological environment:the most important factor which is controlling and changing people's life is technology. Man could realise the dream of walking on the moon travelling in spaceships and giving to the other side of the globe within a few hours.

Technology has changed the way people communicate with the advent of internet and telecommunication system. Technology has changed the ways of how business operates now this is landing too many new business opportunities as well as making absolute many existing systems. technology can act as both an opportunity and threat to the business. It can act as opportunity as business can take advantage of adopting technological innovations to their strategic advantage fullstop however at the same time technology can act as a trade if organization are not able to adapt it to other and their advantage.for example, an innovative and modern production system can act as if the business is not able to change its production system.

New entrants can always use the availability of technological improvements in product or production methods that can be treated to a business. Technology and business are highly integrated and interdependent. The fruits of technological research and development are available to society through business only and this also improves the quality of life of society. Hence technology is patronized by a business. Then again technology also directs the business and makes a total chance on how it is carried out.








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