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Thursday, 24 December 2020

Meaning of inventory valuation

    




Inventory can be defined as assets held

For sale in the ordinary course of business or Processes of production for such sale or for conception in the production of goods or services for sale, including maintenance suppliers and examples other than machinery spares servicing humans and standby equipment. there can be different types of inventory based on the nature of business of an enterprise cost of the inventory is of a trading concern consists primarily of product purchase for resale in their existing form foot of it may also have an inventory of suppliers such a wrapping paper, cartoons stationary. The inventory of manufacturing concern consists of several types of investors inventory as raw material which will become part of goods to be produced work in process partially completed product in the factory and finished product. In manufacturing concern inventories will also include maintenance suppliers examples loose stools and spare parts cost of our inventory is do not include spare parts servicing equipment by a standard document which can be used only in connection with an item of fixed assets and whose use is expected to be a regular basis machinery spares are generally counted for a fixed asset for similarly in enterprise engage in construction business process projects under construction are also considered as inventory.

at the rear and every business and it needs to ascertain the closing balance of inventory which comprises of inventory of raw material work in progress finished good and other items. Value of closing inventory is put as a credit side of a trading account and asset side of the balance sheet. So before the provision of the final account accountant should know the value of the inventory of a business entity for stock however we shall restrict our discussion on inventory valuation of a manufacturing concern and goods of trading concern.
a primary issue in accounting for inventory is a determination of a value at which inventories are carried in the financial statement and until the related revenues and recognized schools of inventory is generally the most significant component of the current asset held by trading or manufacturing enterprise it is widely recognized that inventory is one of the major assets that affect the efficiency of operation. Both inventories and its shortage affect the production activity and the profitability of the enterprise whether it is manufacturing and trading business for stock valuation of inventory has a very significant bearing on the authenticity of the financial statements for the significance of inventory valuation arises due to various reasons as explained in the following points:
1) determination of income:
cost of goods sold is calculated as follows: Cost of goods sold = opening inventory + purchase + direct expenses - closing inventory for stock. inventory valuation will help a major impact on the income determination of merchandise cost is a large fraction of sales price list of the effect of any over or understatement of inventory may be explained as: 1) when closing inventory is overstated net income for the accounting period will be overstated. 2) when opening inventory is overstated common net income for the accounting period will be understated. 3)when closing inventory is the understated net income for the accounting period will be understated. 4) when opening inventory is the understated net income for the accounting period will be overstated. the effect of the statement of inventory figure on the net income is always through the cost of goods sold. Proper calculation of the cost of goods sold and for that matter, proper valuation of inventory is necessary for the determination of correct income. 2) ascertainment of financial position: inventory is are classified as a current asset. The value of inventory on the date of the balance sheet is required to determine the financial position of the business future of in case the inventory is not properly valued at the balance sheet will not disclose the truthful financial position of the business. 3) liquidity analysis: inventory is classified as a current asset it is one of the components of networking capital which reveals the liquidity position of a business first of ratio current ratio which study is the relationship between current assets and current liabilities is significantly affected by the value of inventory. 4) Statutory compliance: schedule III to the companies act 2013request valuation of each class of goods that is raw material work in progress and finished goods under board head to the disclosure of the financial statements. As the requirements of the accounting standards for the financial statements should disclose: 1)the accounting policies adopted in measuring inventory is including the cost formula used and 2)the total carrying amount of inventories and its classification appropriate to the enterprise. The common classification of inventory is a raw material work in progress finished goods Store in trade in respect of goods acquired for trading and spares and loose tools.

Basis of inventory valuation

Inventory should be generally valued at a lower cost or net realizable value. This principle is governed by the principal of conservative accounting under which any expenses or losses from transactions entered or event occurred or to be recognized immediately however any gains of profit a recognized until it becomes due or is actually realize full socks under this principle of lower of cost or net realizable value any loss due to decrease in the sales price of the inventory below it cost is recognized immediately as it is anticipated that the enterprise will close whenever it will sell. Cost of purchase: consists of the purchase price including duties and taxes other than those subsequently recoverable by the enterprise for the taxing authorities. write in words and other expenditure directly attributable to the execution for stock trade discounts and rebates duty drawbacks and other similar items are deducted in determining the cost of purchase. In other words, cost includes any amount paid to the reseller reduced by any discounts and rebates given by the seller. Similarity and duties paid to the similar will be part of the cost of the inventory unless the enterprises can recover these tax duties for the authorities. 2) another cost may include administrative overheads included to bring the inventory to present location and condition or any cost specifically in a cut on an inventory of a specific customer first of interest and other borrowing costs are generally not included in the cost of inventory. However, in some circumstances where the production process is long and it is required to carry inventory for a long period example wind rises and Timber, it is maybe appropriate to consider the interest and other borrowings cost also part of the cost of inventory. 3) net realizable value: this is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business less the estimated cost of completion and the estimated cost necessary to make the sale in case of any sports and credit net realizable value will generally mean selling prices which reduces by selling and distribution expenses. In case of work in progress expenses in our heads required to be incurred to convert the value in progress into finished goods and making it ready for sale will also be reduced from selling price school trip in case of raw materials replacement cost is generally considered as net realizable values. an assessment is made of as at each balance sheet date. Inventories are usually written down to net realizable value on an item by item basis. In circumstances, it may be appropriate to group similar or related items example in the case of interchangeable items it may not be possible to identify the cost and not the realizable value of each item separately.


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Sunday, 8 November 2020

Innovation in Higher Education During the Time of Crisis

 A Couple of years lower back I was once invited to attend an International Conference in Kolkata (formerly acknowledged as Calcutta), India hosted mutually by way of two very prestigious Indian Institutions on the theme "Innovative Business Practices in a VUCA world." I used to be excited and felt a deep experience of pleasure to be given this invitation to attend as a keynote speaker for two reasons: The theme of the convention was once very shut to my coronary heart as I continually felt that uncertainties are the father of innovation, appreciation dynamics of commercial enterprise uncertainties is the core to success. Secondly, the metropolis of Kolkata. A charming & bustling city. The City of Joy. Famous for its culture, character, foodies (puchka, rosogolla, mistis, biryanis etc.) and intellect. Nobel laureate Gunter Grass staunchly mentioned in 1975 "If Calcutta is dying, then each metropolis is dying." This is true. People in Calcutta are constantly alive with a range of issues and challenges they face each and every day, however they dislike criticism about their agony. I like the metropolis very tons and is one of my most favored cities in the world as it is the place I can get my foremost happiness and end up oblivious of the different matters of the universe, roaming round the dusty roads, bypassing small roadside tea stalls and listening to extra Bengali sounds, you experience strolling thru the grungy layers of time.



The contemporary world is overly complex, unpredictable, and adverse to all of us except we locate a special concord to stay in and adapt so to the situation. The contemporary outbreak COVID-19 delivered that actuality to all of us. This is one of the biggest crises of humanity and we are experiencing it first-hand. Individuals, communities, and country states are struggling to cope with this unknown, unpredictable, and invisible enemy that is inflicting serious human fatalities and miseries worldwide. While this is real that lights will come after these darkish times, and we all will overcome this crisis, it truely will exchange the behavioral patterns of the entirety for the foreseeable future. This disaster will allow humans to experience one of a kind with higher integration. Different in that experience that human beings will have excessive confidence, higher competencies sets, turn out to be extra succesful and extra perception on how to deal with a complicated situation; and higher integration in that feel that humans will be extra focused, their emotions, feelings, rationality, attitudes, empathy, cooperation will come to be greater built-in to obtain some thing for better. I am assured that post-COIVID-19 surroundings we will all be capable to reply one of the most indispensable questions "how this VUCA world is shaping our lives, societies, international locations and the world? And how Institutions have to reply to the challenges we are facing?


It is a scenario of a new 'normal' that we are dwelling in a VUCA world that is volatile, uncertain, complex, and of direction ambiguous. The remarkable adjustments we have viewed when you consider that the 2nd world conflict is incredibly significant, however the cutting-edge outbreaks of this generations of implausible and idiosyncratic. Today's commercial enterprise context is very turbulent and uncertain, from time to time very adversarial & complicated and it is necessary that enterprise wishes to evolve, learn, and innovate to survive. Organisations that do no longer include modifications are doomed. Change is paramount for brand new dynamic situation. We have viewed a range of models, tools, theories, and strategies to address a range of challenges we have been going through or to reply enterprise dynamics. In some cases, we are successful, however many instances we are not. Be there some thing else we can observe to recognize this dynamic nature of commercial enterprise and reply adequately? I strongly feel, one of the many choices to apprehend the social adjustments are the thought of evolution.


The evolutionary idea gives a customary framework for appreciation social change. 

However, in this article, I am now not going to talk about the achievable contribution of the evolutionary techniques to dynamic enterprise method and how strategic dynamism can be addressed, however as an alternative my dialogue will focal point on some principal challenges all Higher Education Institutions are going through in VUCA world unique in reference to COVID-19 and the responses we need. Institutions should adapt and exchange in accordance to the context and its new conditionality to continue to exist & prosper in a complicated world. I suggest that Institutions ought to now not alternate their last desires or imaginative and prescient instead they must be given new paths to gain them, establishments have to embody new scenario with terrific responses. Innovation is the last answer for overcoming any disaster or uncertainties.


Walking round brilliant cities round the world like London at any time, if you appear up, we will regularly spot signal of tremendous thinkers of the previous & humans who have contributed to the development of mankind. Two years back, whilst I used to be strolling via central London, I was once pleasantly amazed to see a Blue plaque marking the truth that Mahatma Gandhi had lived a few instances in London. Just suppose about this. Mahatma Gandhi, a exceptional parent of India and the world, residing in London forty two years earlier than the Indian Independence. What delivered him there? What did he analyze from it? Who did he meet? How he was once influenced later in his outlook, having then visited the most capitalist metropolis on planet earth!

It virtually should have legacy. 

Just as he left the legacy on the world. We can't overlook the previous that formed the nation, equally we should seem to be ahead with the key reference factor in the background. They are truly there in the outlook and in the totality in mankind knowledge. He added the simplicity, he dreamed with clarity, a visionary and in the end delivered the freedom for the millions. He taught us that to live, live on and prosper, revolutionary practices are imperative whether or not it is in politics, firms or in any elements of life. He talked about the adjustments skill innovation.


With this reference I felt that I must recall every other classical thinker who talked about innovation and simplicity. I am sure, you may additionally wager who this character is. A super thinker- Ernst Friedrich Schumacher a German statistician & Economist who is fantastically acknowledged for his e-book "Small is Beautiful: A find out about of economics as if human beings mattered" posted in 1973. This is one of the most influential books in the world. The e book targeted on the Western/capitalist financial shape in a modern way. He used to be in opposition to the advent of large corporations. He challenged the doctrine of economic, Technological, and scientific specialisation and proposed a device of intermediate technology, primarily based on smaller working units, possession ought to be communal with regional places of work that utilises neighborhood assets and labour forces. He realised the hazard of massive companies and the future hegemonic world order. The so-called globalisation is one of the strongest ideologies after the disintegration of Soviet Union began to emerge in all elements of our lives and civil society members, intellectuals, country actors, companies generic the notion as one of the most essential stimulus for nation's boom & development.


The key message of "Small is Beautiful" is applicable to my dialogue and that is smallness, simplicity, and innovation. When he talked about education, he realised Education is one of the most crucial of all resources. He blamed the academic device when a civilisation is in steady of crisis. He located a salient reality in Gandhi's remark that " Earth gives ample to fulfill each man's need, however now not for each man's greed." The thought of smallness delivered a progressive risk to the current world of financial order what he referred as "gigantism." What Schumacher desired used to be a people-centred economics. In the instructional device we desire a sustainable and modern student-centred system.


Gandhi delivered revolutionary practices in politics thru his non-violence movement-a effective device for social protest and modern social and political change. E. F Schumacher challenged the historic Western Capitalist doctrine with his modern doctrine small is lovely which turns into a daring idealism for the world. The equal mantra uttered by way of any other exquisite visionary Austrian Economist Schumpeter. He talked about the modifications and innovative destruction. Creativity comes via destruction. Creativity is quintessential to remain in the race. Creativity is crucial to overcome complicated situation, battle with unknown, unpredictability and a mega disaster like the disaster we are dealing with now.


All these above, three tremendous world thinkers have some thing frequent in them: Change. It is critical and alternate ability innovation.


Global challenges

If we query ourselves to discover the most essential challenges, we are dealing with in this modern world what we will see? We can discover out without problems quite a few challenges from a number of credible sources. Instead of searching at more than a few sources, my lookup corporation despatched out a questionnaire to over four hundred teachers and commercial enterprise leaders to discover the 5 most essential challenges. However, in our surprise, primarily based on response from 250 of them, Education is discovered as most essential venture for the world. It reminds me once more to recall Gandhi's Buniady Shksha (Fundamental Education)- Education is that which liberates. He noticed cautiously that proper training is critical now not the know-how of information to make democracy function.


Need VUCA chief for VUCA world

According to the Research performed through the Boston Consulting Group (2011), corporations that are adaptive and agile are extra possibly to thrive all through turbulent times. To lead and thrive in a VUCA context, leaders have to be greater adept than in the previous at complicated and adaptive questioning abilities, such as speedy studying and problem-solving, self-awareness, remedy with ambiguity, and strategic thinking. Indeed, even the most skilled greater training leaders might also be taxed in addressing the challenges of an ever-changing (VUCA) environment.


Bob Johansen (2014), distinctive fellow at the Institute for the Future and the writer of the e book "Leaders make the future" (2012) proposed an antidote, coined as "VUCA Prime". A VUCA chief need to have clear vision, an understanding, clarity, and agility Prof. Vijay Govindarajan-A Harvard Prof. described innovation as mountain climbing. In mountain hiking human beings are going through many challenges on getting to the pinnacle of the mountain. Once you are there you have accomplished it and that is moneymaking and exciting. However, the actual assignment starts offevolved as you are coming down from the pinnacle due to the fact of there are extra challenges and dangers. The new state of affairs is unknown for you and you are now not organized for it. We focal point on innovation too tons on one aspect and that is to carry an idea/creativity, however actual assignment ought to be on different facet which is how do you make it happen.


Both men and women and corporations have to center of attention on Innovative approaches. However, to deliver innovation we want to have an progressive mindset. We need to have clear aspirations and needs to deliver changes. It is necessary to apprehend that innovation is the commercialisation of creativity. Therefore, It is no longer an character approach, alternatively it is an organizational collective effort. Innovation inside the establishments can carry many fantastic effects for sustainability. While blessings are clear however it is no longer usually handy to carry new thoughts and progressive approaches of doing things as there are many blockages of enforcing innovation along with bad institutional aspiration, guide and funding, resistance to change, complicated regulatory framework at each local, countrywide and regional stage amongst others. Therefore, it is essential that establishments need to have a clear imaginative and prescient and are equipped to adapt agile applied sciences that allow innovation for the duration of the organisation. Technology can pressure the establishments to turn out to be extra customer-oriented imaginative and prescient of education. Such revolutionary practices can stimulate collaboration and partnerships with different institutions. This is the solely mantra for all of us in the course of disaster and beyond: Innovate, Innovate & Innovate, and alternate the methods to reap our last desires besides altering our destination.


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Friday, 6 November 2020

Quality Management System in Pharmaceuticals

 The pharmaceutical enterprise is one of the closely regulated manufacturing firms. Quality administration structures have a direct have an impact on the final exceptional of completed products. The fantastic of these products, however, does now not solely mirror legislative necessities however the essence and effectivity of the pharmaceutical practitioner.

Because of the importance connected to pharmaceutical industries, simply like the meals industries, they are without delay used via buyers either for neighborhood utility or inside consumption. The quality, safety, and efficacy attributes of this pharmaceutical merchandise must, for this reason, be assured so that the consumer's fitness is now not compromised. To make certain that excessive excellent and security is guaranteed, there is a want for gorgeous pharmaceutical industries.

Pharmaceutical industries are sure to comply with the world's lifestyles science first-rate requirements whilst attractive both in the production, supply, or consumption of pharmaceutical products. There are globally diagnosed our bodies that adjust the first-class of drug elements and drug products.

Having a precise grasp as nicely as imposing a terrific pleasant administration machine is a prerequisite for each and every sort of provider in this pharmaceutical zone to fulfill the regulatory as properly as the moral duty of incorporating administration of identity, safety, purity, quality, and efficacy of the completed medicinal products.

For most biotech and pharmaceutical companies, however, administration of training, enterprise processes, and files are nightmares to them. In this article, we are going to discover the great administration structures and how one has to discover them and control the operations successfully.

Application

The element of the high-quality manufacturing gadget in pharmaceutical merchandise can be utilized in the pharmaceutical Development for:

• Formulation improvement (container/closure system)

• Manufacture of investigational products.

• Drug substance development

• Development of analytical method

• Delivery gadget improvement (where needed)

• Manufacturing technique scale-up and development

Beneficiaries of Pharmaceutical Quality Systems

R&D Document Authors: In addition, environment-friendly pleasant administration structures without problems out creator files from compliant templates. The authors want now not to fear about transforming the archives to shape the templates. Word 2007 customers can create, revise, and even redline the files besides having to go away Word whilst the use of the new systems' toolbar. R&D Managers (Clinical, Regulatory, and Pre-Clinical): They can use the specific kinds of high-quality administration pharmaceutical software program structures like grasp control, search, organize, and take stock of unique find out about archives inside the secure, and centralized high-quality administration system. With the computerized routing and approval performance of excellent systems, managers can with ease oversee the mission groups comprised of sources from more than a few departments, as an awful lot as the groups may be working on more than a few tasks at the identical time. The superior pharmaceutical high-quality administration structures additionally decorate correspondence from distinct regulatory agencies, suppliers, and CROs, linked with the excellent documentation. With high quality best administration systems, the PDFs having content material bookmarks can be routinely generated for both file manipulate features or regulatory submissions. Since most of the pharmaceutical satisfactory administration software program is entire and linked systems, authors do not want to continuously cycle throughout the exclusive disparate structures (from phrase to electronic mail and then to record administration system, and so forth) so as to come across or revise a document, and then post it for overview or approval - satisfactory administration structures such as grasp manage lets in such moves to be undertaken inside the single built-in system.

Management: On section of lifestyles science organizations, pharmaceutical pleasant structures are recognized in imparting complete options push aside from the current in-house capabilities. Should it be that the enterprise is in want of coaching on the system's performance or wishes help on machine configuration to fit the particular needs, pharmaceutical excellent administration structures can be modeled with any provider stage required, or the guide the company needs. A corporation in want of professional expertise can have fantastic management's knowledgeable advisory crew to analyze the occasions so as to without a doubt map and strengthen these requirements.

Manufacturing/Operations: These structures effortlessly tracks all specifications, nonconformance, and deviations at some point of the improvement cycle. Pharmaceutical administration structures supply that all splendid personnel features education on the most up to date work guidelines and SOPs. Equally, these structures automate coaching duties and facilitate the ease of finding of education documents inside the centralized system.

Clinical Personnel: Within the scientific precincts, the pharmaceutical best administration structures rids the administration from the instances of paper submitting backlogs that end result in "black holes " of files which are nearly not possible to find. Now that the exceptional administration structures are digital and automated, looking out of archives for trial documentation (IRB information, or protocols) is simple. CVs, electronic report copies, e-mails, etc., from one-of-a-kind, learn about sites, can be without problems accessed in a single and centralized system.

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Thursday, 5 November 2020

What is non- funding institution for business facilitation in India

 The institutions such as the Reserve Bank of India which is the central bank of the country, the securities and exchange board of India which is defective securities exchange in the competition commission of India which is the rule setter for fair play in business provide the Supra contacts of business facilitation.



Then there are industry-specific business letters to such as the insurance regulatory and development authority, telecom regulatory authority of India, and the like. This institution does not invest in businesses and as such are called non-funding institutions.

In addition to a broad, general description of their roles and functions,

our emphasis here would be on their respective roles as business facilities. Here it would be pertinent to mention that there are several other non fund institutions that facilitated business right from 35 and formation to product and process testing training of manpower and a host of business extension services for a stock for example the National Institute of entrepreneurship and small business development focuses on training that trainers in entrepreneurship development samikaran entrepreneurship development institution is the national level effects organization of the entrepreneurship development first then there are 30 micro small and medium enterprises development institutes and 28 branch MSME-DIsset up in state capitals and other industrial cities all over the country for providing a host of services to the interviewer / small businesses. These institutes render consultancy services, prepare State industrial profiles, and conduct district-level industrial potential surveys. Besides comedies, institutes prepare project profiles and facilitate quality control and up-gradation in these enterprises.

These are several commodity boards and export promotion councils that assist businesses in their international for a full stop institutes like India Trade promotion organization and India brand equity foundation aim to enhance India's image as a sourcing part II and investment destination. We should not forget the facility's role of governments such as schemes as making in India, startup India for furthering, and facilitating Indian business.

RBI role in business facilitation:

1. Currency policy: the responsible for the monitor resolution of the economy and in the recent contacts of demonetization or remonetization too.attitude money supply is critical for the functioning of the economy. All the factor incomes in a modern economy are in fact money incomes first of business is revenue too is monitored.moreover the RBI also oversees the variability of foreign currency of facilitating overseas business transactions to stop it plays an important and indirect role in the determination of exchange rates that is the rates at which the domestic currency exchange with foreign currencies and vice versa.

2. Credit policy: Derby does not find a business or for the matter any activity most of our it policies have a major impact on the generalization of the banking resources for business generally as well as specifically for certain sectors. A small reduction in the state lottery liquidity ratio cash reserve ratio or bank rate can put huge funds at the disposal of the commercial banks for lending to the business and other sectors.

3. Development of financial system: financial state to be the lifeblood of business future of end a well-developed financial system is regarded as a sine qua non an excellent imperative for economic development. the financial system typically comprises financial institution's financial instruments and financial markets. RBI may be regarded as the heart of the financial system. It oversees a functioning and outreach of the commercial banks as well as non-banking finance companies to stop the funds that RBI via stipulatingSLR and CRR are generalized to development finance institutions comical development banks in India.


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What is about securities and exchange board of India

 Know about securities and exchange board of India



1.Introduction:

the securities and exchange board of India (SEBI) was established by the government of India on 12th April 1988 and given Statutory powers in 1992 with SEBI act 1992 being passed in the parliament of the SEBI act 1992 has come into force with effect from 30 January 1992.

SEBI is an authority to regulate and develop the Indian capital market and protect the interest of investors in the capital market. The controller of the capital issue has been played by the SEBI and authority under the capital issue control act 1947.
SEBI has its headquarters at the business district of Bandra Kurla Complex in Mumbai coma and has north and east and a southern and western regional office in New Delhi Kolkata Chennai and Ahmedabad, respectively controller of capital issues was the regulatory authority before SEBI come into existence; it delivered 30 from the capital issues act 1947. In April 1988 Korma recipe was constituted as a regulator of capital markets in India under a resolution of the Government of India.

2. SEBI role in business facilitation:

CBI responsible for the development of India's capital market that is market for the corporate issue of capital first of example, it facilitates the public offering of capital by the company to stop these companies are able to access the capital market of their funding requirements. It also oversees the subsequent trading of their shares on the floor of the stock exchanges. It even facilities overseas and Titus these years of participating in Indian capital markets and the domestic capital market and 30 years of participation in the overseas market. It coordinates with the market developers and regulators. It is responsible for investment faith in the functioning of the capital markets and excuses the corporates of the steady flow of funds.

3. Competition Commission of India CCI:

a) introduction-competition is a contest between organisms, animals individuals and groups, etc. In the context of business, competition is the best means of ensuring that the common man has access to the broadest range of goods and services at the most competitive prices. With increased competition, producers will have maximum incentive to innovate and specialized. This would result in reduced costs and wider choice for consumers. If their competition in the market is essential to achieve this objective to stop competition commission was set up to create and sustain fair competition in the economy that will provide a level playing field to the producers and make the market work for the welfare of the consumers.
b) the competition act,2002-basically comic competition law is a tool to implement and enforce competition policy and to prevent and furnish anticompetitive business practices by farmers and unnecessary government interfaces in the market. The competition act 2002 as amended by the competition act 2007 follows the philosophy of modern competition laws. The Act prohibits anti-competitive agreements and abuse of dominant position by enterprises and labels its combination acquisition of acquiring of controls and M and A which causes or likely to cause an appreciable adverse effect on competition within India.
c) the competition commission of India CCI-the competition commission of India CCI established by the central government on 14th October 2003. The commission is a body corporate having perpetual succession and common seal full stops CCI consists of a chairperson in six members appointed by the central government post of it is a duty of the commission to eliminate practices having an adverse effect on competition promote and sustain competition, protect the interests of consumers and ensure freedom of trade in the markets of India. The commission is also required to give an opinion on competition issues on a difference received from a statutory authority established under any law and to undertake competition advocacy to create public awareness and impart training on competition issues.
d) Role of CCI: the premier able to the competition act states and act to provide keeping in view of the economic development of the country, for the establishment of a commission to prevent practices having an adverse effect on competition to promote and sustain competition in markets to protect the interests of the consumer and to ensure freedom of trade carried on by other participants in the market, in India and for matters connected therewith or accidental thereto.
e) Role of CCI as a business facilitator-fair competition is a key to a thriving business sector post of CCI protect businesses from other businesses and fair practices and analyzing the living entities too.it promotes competition by preventing abuse of dominance by a market player to the determinant of other competitors and the consumers. As such it enjoys the co-existence of large and small enterprises.
4. Insurance regulatory and development authority of India: insurance regulatory and development authority of India is an autonomous Apex Titli body that regulates and develops the insurance industry in India first of it was constituted under the insurance regulatory and development authority act 1999 and duly passed by the parliament.

The IRDA Act, 1999allows private players to enter the insurance sector in India besides a maximum for equity of 26% in a private insurance company having operations in India. The insurance bill proposed by the UPA government in July 2013 but passed in July 2014 raised the FDI limits in the insurance sector to 49%.it serves as an authority to protect the interests of holders of insurance policy, to regulate, promote, and ensure orderly growth of the insurance industry, and for matters connected therewith. IRDA rules are the protection rights of policyholders and they provide registration certificate to life insurance companies and responsible for renewable commodification comic and solution and suspension of the registered certificate.
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Discuss about funding institutions for Indian development banks

 Development banks are those financial institutions that provide funds and financial assistance to new and upcoming business enterprises. Development banks are distinguishable from commercial banks. Unlike commercial banks, they do not accept deposits. They drove their resources from the government and other promoting agencies. As such they are referred to as "purveyors" of credit. while discussing the role of RBI as a business Felicita we mentioned that the instrument of SLR and CRR is the means through which the funds are from the banking sector and those funds are placed with the development banks.



In India, the genesis of development banking may be traced to the setting up of the industrial finance corporation of India in 1948. the setting of the industrial credit and investment corporation of India took place in 1955 and the industries development bank of India in 1964. The letter to development banks has since converted into commercial banks. The IFCI is the loan surviving industrial development bank in India at present. the small industries development bank of India spun off from the IDBI in 1994. The National Bank for agricultural and rural development was set up in 1982.

National bank for agriculture and rural development


Is an Apex development Bank in India headquarters at Mumbai with branches all over India? The bank has been entrusted with matters concerning policy planning and operations in the field of credit for agriculture and other economic activities in rural areas in India for stop NABARD is active in developing financial inclusion policy and is a member of the alliance for financial inclusion.
NABARD has been instrumental in grounding rural social innovations and social enterprises in the rural hinterlands. It has in the process partnered with about 4,000 organizations in grounding many of the interventions.

The organisation had developed a huge amount of trust capital in its three decades of work with rural communities.

1.NABARD is the most important institution in the country which looks after the development of the cottage industry commerce small industry and village industry and other rural industries.
2.NABARD also reaches out to Dalit economics and supports and promotes integrated developments.

3. NABARD discharge its duty by undertaking the following roles:

a) search as an Apex financing agency for the institutions providing investment and production credit for promoting the various development activities in rural areas.
b)text measures towards institution building for improving the observative capacity of the credit delivery system including monitoring formulation of rehabilitation schemes destructuring of credit institutions, training of personnel, etc.
c)coordinates the rural financing activities of all institutions engage in developmental work at the field level and maintains seriously ISON with Government of India state governments reserve Bank of India and other national-level institutions concerned with policy formulation.
d) undertakes monitoring and evaluation of projects that were financed by it.
e)it regulate the cooperative banks and RRB and manage talent acquisition through IBPS CWE.
Nawabs refinance is available to State cooperative agriculture and rural development banks state cooperative banks regional rural banks commercial banks and other financial institutions approved by RBI. While the ultimate beneficiaries of investment credit can be individuals partnership concerns companies commerce state-owned corporation of cooperative societies production credit is generally given to individuals. Nabard has its head office at Mumbai India.
NABARD is also known for its big Bank linkage programming which encourages India's banks to lend to self-help groups. Largely because shg is composed mainly of poor women, this has evolved into an important Indian tool for microfinance.
NABARD also has a portfolio of natural resources management programs involving diverse fields like watershed development, tribal development, and innovation through dedicated farm set up for the purpose.
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What is other business terminology?

 Acquisition: when one in an organization takes over the other organization and controls all its business operations, it is known as acquisitions. In this process of acquisition one financially strong organization overpowers the weaker one.



Bottom line: in plain English bottom line means the most important fact of an aspect of anything. In BCK, it may be defined as the farm's income after all expenses have been deducted from revenues. these expenses include interest charges paid on loans common general and administrative costs and income tax is a full stop in simple words it is the same things as NET profits for this method than most of the owners of the farm. In today's context if forms performance is evaluated not on the basis of such and economic performance as not prophets alone but also on the basis of a contribution to the commodities and the conservation of the environment.
Business environment: it is a set of all the variables external to the farms but influences its decision making and in turn, is also influenced by it.
Business facilitator: diesel individuals, organizations-institutions, and all other arrangements that are the setting up of operating an existing from the business.
Cooperative forms of business organization: these are the forms of business organizations wherein the eyes of the business entity is distinct from its owners. It can own the assets and Owe to others as an artificial legal person. Thus, the liability of business owners can be limited to be a predetermined amount. The company is the idle representation of the corporate forms of business organization. Cooperative governance: it is a system of overseeing the affairs of a corporation to ensure that they are conducted in an ethical manner and s provisions of law full soft the mechanism of corporate governance includes a. The board of directors who appoint, oversee, and reward the management team;b. Independent audit of the accounts of the company; c.reporting of the performance to the market stock exchanges and business media. All these are examples of the system of corporate governance.
Electronic commerce: it boldly refers to the internet and mobile telephone e based applications for conducting business and commerce. The letter more precisely e is known as mobile commerce. It includes not only sach pure e-commerce business as Amazon but also includes such business functions as marketing internal marketing etc. Usually it typical E-Commerce retailing with have an order placement tracking and delivery and as well as online payment end.
Electronic filling: electronic filing system of filling information required by regulators Government and others electronically. In taxation, it is a method of filing tax returns and tax forms on the internet. Globalization: it is a systematic process of removing the barriers to international trade in goods and services and international flows of capital first of some people argue that is it should include various free movement of labor as well as of collectively all this result in the greater integration of a country's economy with the economy of rest of the world.
Goodwill: Goodwill is accounting is the difference between the watered company page when it buys assets of another company and the book value of those assets. Sometimes, real Goodwill is a company's good reputation for the loyalty of its customers, and so on.
Infrastructure: it means the basic facility example buildings roads power supplies needed for the operation of a society or enterprise. For example, the farm infrastructure would comprise is factories from office warehouses, etc.
Joint products and by-products: joint products represent two or more product separated in the course of the same processing operation, usually requiring further processing each product being in such a proportion that no single product can be designed as a major product. For example in the oil industry gasoline, fuel oil lubricants, paraffin, kerosene are all produced from crude petroleum.by products are defined as products be covered from material discarded in the main process or the form of production of some major products where the material value is to be considered at the time of severance for the main product. Thus, by-products in emerging as a result of the processing operation of another product or they are produced from the scope or waste of materials of a process for example molasses in the sugar industry.
Liberalization: it refers to a systematic process of easing government control over private business activity. It is often interesting with the license and permit era where the business head to obtain Government licenses and permissions to start or grow a business. Liberalization is one of the three pillars of the new economic policy of the Government of India since the 1990s. Dadar tu pillars are privatization and globalization full software that is why the NTP is also known as LPG or GPL where G L and P respectively imply globalization, Liberalisation, and privatization.

Mission: a company's mission statement is typically focused on its present business scope and who we and what we do; mission statements bodily describe and organizations present capabilities, customer focus activities, and business makeup.
Proprietary forms of business organizations: these are the forms of business organization where the law does not distinguish between the business as a separate entity distinct from its owners. Consequently, the liabilities of the business are considered as the personal liabilities of the owners. Sole proprietorship and partnership may be seated as the best representative examples of the proprietary form of business organization. Returns and risks: these are the two sides of the business outcomes particularly for its owners and generally for all investors. Individuals and businesses invest their resources in expectation of the returns of rewards, they may be simply called profits. However, these expectations may not always realize to all or fully. The non / Patil delegation of expectation is called raised. Insert investment such risks are known existent or so low as to label this as a risk-free investment. For example, if a person deposits her / his savings in his savings bank account of a recurring deposit account or fixed deposit account of a bank that returns are almost as Yudh. But most of their investments more so investment in business and tile risk full stop those who undertake the risk expect commensurate returns as well. Thus, the cliche higher the risk and higher the returns.
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